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Nano Dot, Macro Impact

Shaping Tomorrow with Precision

We are a dynamic and emerging force in the world of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, dedicated to forging a better and safer tomorrow in collaboration with nanomaterial manufacturers from the industrial sector, policymakers from government, and scientists from research institutes and universities.



What is Nanomaterial?

There exists no distinct size boundary to distinguish between nanomaterials and non-nanomaterials, and a universally accepted definition of nanomaterial remains elusive. Generally, nanomaterials encompass discrete material components with one or more external dimensions falling within the range of 1 nm to 100 nm or materials possessing internal or surface nanostructures within this size bracket.

Nanoparticles within a material exhibit a distribution in size, and two distinct pathways are employed for defining nanomaterials: one based on particle size and the other based on surface area. When 50% or more of the particles possess one or more external dimensions within the 1 nm to 100 nm range, the material qualifies as a nanomaterial. Debates persist regarding whether this 50% threshold should be based on particle number or weight. The European Union has adopted the number-based threshold, while the United States has opted for the weight-based one. Under specific circumstances, and when concerns related to the environment, health, safety, or competitiveness warrant it, the 50% number size distribution threshold may be replaced by a threshold falling between 1% and 50%.

Certain nanomaterials do not conform to the stated size range of 1 nm to 100 nm for their external dimensions. For such cases, exceptions are made for fullerenes, graphene flakes, and single-wall carbon nanotubes with one or more external dimensions below 1 nm, categorizing them as nanomaterials. Some materials exhibit internal or surface nanostructures, such as cavities, and in such instances, the determination of nanomaterial status is based on the surface area approach. A material qualifies as a nanomaterial if it possesses a specific surface area per unit volume exceeding 60 m2/cm3.

To summarize, the definition of nanomaterials can vary among different regulatory agencies due to their distinct areas of focus.

What sets nanomaterials apart from their bulk counterparts?

The chemical environment experienced by surface atoms of these particles differs from that of atoms within the interior, often resulting in heightened reactivity. Nanomaterials exhibit distinct physicochemical properties when compared to their bulk counterparts or larger particles due to the significant presence of surface atoms.


These unique properties of nanomaterials are closely tied to alterations in their electronic band structure as they are reduced in size to the nanometer scale. According to quantum theory, individual atoms possess discrete electron energy levels. When two atoms come into proximity, they interact, leading to the splitting of their energy levels. In the case of bulk materials, where there is an immense number of atoms (considered practically infinite), the energy levels form continuous energy bands. These bands are known as the conduction band and the valence band, corresponding to the behavior of valence electrons and inner electrons, respectively. However, when the particle size becomes sufficiently small, the energy bands cease to be continuous and instead become discrete due to the limited number of atoms involved.


Pros and cons of Nanomaterials

The unique properties of nanomaterials have opened up a wide array of applications across various fields. For instance, in the context of COVID vaccines, nanolipids played a crucial role in safeguarding mRNA from degradation and facilitating its entry into cells. In the realm of medicine, nanomaterials show great promise in drug delivery, acting as imaging contrast agents, and even in cancer treatment. They enhance medical efficiency while minimizing side effects. The versatility of nanoparticles allows for the incorporation of both therapeutic and diagnostic components into a single, cohesive platform

In the cosmetic and skincare industry, nanomaterials find applications as active ingredients or for enhancing the texture and appearance of products, thereby improving their performance. Moreover, nanomaterials have become prevalent in coatings and printing, offering benefits like UV protection, improved corrosion resistance, durability, and even self-cleaning properties.

Nanomaterials also hold great potential in environmental applications, such as the removal of pollutants from water or air, degradation processes, and soil remediation. They serve as catalysts or support for catalysts, aiding in various chemical reactions.

In textiles, nanomaterials contribute to improved UV protection, stain resistance, and antibacterial properties. Their utility extends to food packaging, energy production, electronics engineering, aerospace, automotive industries, pesticide development, and numerous aspects of our daily lives.

The versatility and innovative capabilities of nanomaterials continue to drive advancements across a wide range of industries, making them an integral part of modern technology and applications.

Coins has two sides. Nanomaterials can pose health and safety hazards, despite of their promising applications. Generally, compared to their bulk counterpart, their greater ability to penetrate the biological membrane, and their higher reactivity could lead to a worse adverse health effect. Nanomaterials could interact with biomolecules and cells in unexpected ways.  The health and environmental risks associated with nanomaterials are complex and require ongoing research to better understand and mitigate these potential hazards.

Nanomaterials does not always retain as nano

When we compare surface atoms to those within the interior of nanoparticles, surface atoms have fewer neighboring atoms, resulting in an uneven distribution of attractive forces. This imbalance in forces or unsatisfied bonds leads to a higher surface energy in nanoparticles. 


In a dispersion system containing nanoparticles, there is a natural tendency to reduce this high surface energy to attain a more stable state. However, if there isn't a sufficient repulsive force acting between the nanoparticles, it can lead to aggregation or agglomeration. In such cases, the nanomaterials lose their nanoscale characteristics and cease to be truly "nano" due to the clumping or clustering of particles.


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